after Shivaji See also: MughalMaratha Wars Shivaji left behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Orders came from the emperor to station Shivaji in Kabul, which Shivaji refused. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Shahu and the Peshwas gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, creating the Maratha Confederacy. The Mughals also took away the jagir of Berar from Shivaji to recover the money lent to him a few years earlier. Deogirikar noted that Nehru had admitted he was wrong regarding Shivaji, and now endorsed Shivaji as great nationalist. 58 Battle of Pavan Khind There is some dispute over the circumstances of Shivaji's withdrawal (treaty or escape) and his destination (Ragna or Vishalgad but the popular story details his night movement to Vishalgad and a sacrificial rear-guard action to allow him to escape. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji and son of Sambhaji, was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during a 27-year period. 112 113 His appeal was somewhat successful, and in 1677 Shivaji visited Hyderabad for a month and entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golkonda sultanate, agreeing to reject his alliance with Bijapur and jointly oppose the Mughals. 153 At the end of the 19th century, Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay, who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the kshatriya varna. Laine published his book Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India, which was followed by heavy criticism including threats of arrest.
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Shivaji's confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji's officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar. At its peak, the Maratha empire stretched from Tamil Nadu 73 :204 125 in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ) in the north, and Bengal. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, and the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. The Mughal commander succeeded in luring away several of Shivaji's key commanders, and many of his cavalrymen, into Mughal service. Popular legend says that Shivaji smuggled himself and his son out of the house in large baskets, claimed to be sweets to be gifted to religious figures in the city. His artillery was relatively underdeveloped and reliant on European suppliers, further inclining him to a very mobile form of warfare. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil vrouw wil man neuken rule with well-structured administrative organisations.
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